Calcium supplements are a popular health product for many people, but did you know that if the ratio between calcium and magnesium is not carefully balanced, it can actually lead to health risks? Finding a balance is an important principle that applies to maintaining the well-being of all things in the world, including the human body. There are delicate relationships between nutrients that must be maintained in a certain balance in order to optimize bodily functions, especially when it comes to the two major minerals that affect physiological functions: calcium and magnesium! What kind of relationship exists between calcium and magnesium? Apart from daily dietary intake, how should calcium supplementation be approached in order to achieve a healthy balance within the body?
The Role, Distribution, and Homeostasis of Calcium in the Body
Distribution of Calcium
The majority of calcium in the body (>99%) is bound to collagen protein in the form of hydroxyapatite, which is present in bones and teeth. The remaining 1% or so of calcium may exist in the form of free ions, protein-bound complexes, or ion complexes, distributed in the extracellular fluid or soft tissues. 
Functions of Calcium
Calcium that exists in bones primarily serves two functions:
Calcium is an essential material for the construction and maintenance of bones and teeth. Adequate calcium supply is necessary to ensure bone growth and maintenance.
1.Calcium in bones also plays a role in maintaining the dynamic balance of calcium within and outside cells, preventing calcium deficiency in the extracellular fluid or soft tissues.
2.Although the amount of calcium distributed in body fluids or soft tissues is only about 1%, it is closely related to many important physiological functions, including muscle contraction (including cardiac muscles), nerve transmission, clotting assistance, enzyme activation, cell differentiation, immune response, and apoptosis. 
Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis
Calcium outside the bones is an indispensable mineral for basic physiological functions. Therefore, the body precisely regulates blood calcium levels through the small intestine, kidneys, and bones. The hormones most closely related to the control of blood calcium are parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and active form of vitamin D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3).
When blood calcium levels are low, calcium-sensing receptors in the parathyroid lose activity and stimulate the secretion of PTH. PTH acts on the kidneys, increasing calcium reabsorption in the renal tubules to reduce calcium loss. PTH also stimulates the kidneys to synthesize and release active vitamin D3 to enhance calcium absorption in the intestines.
PTH also acts on bones, enhancing the ability of osteoclasts to break down hard bone tissues into minerals, releasing calcium to replenish the deficient blood calcium. This process is called bone resorption. Conversely, when blood calcium levels are high, the body reduces calcium absorption in the intestines, decreases calcium reabsorption in the renal tubules, and weakens the ability of osteoclasts to break down hard bone tissues. Through these precise regulations, blood calcium levels are maintained in balance. 
The Role, Distribution, and Homeostasis of Magnesium in the Body
Distribution of Magnesium
The distribution of magnesium in the body is not as concentrated in bones as calcium is. Approximately 50-60% of magnesium is stored in bones, while 40-50% is stored in muscles and other soft tissues. The remaining 1% or so of magnesium can be found in the plasma and red blood cells. 
Functions of Magnesium
Magnesium is the second most abundant cation in cells, after potassium. Magnesium acts as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes and is involved in various physiological functions, including protein synthesis, muscle contraction, nerve function, blood sugar regulation, blood pressure control, facilitation of other ion channels (such as calcium and potassium), as well as direct involvement in energy metabolism, ATP production, and synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).
1.Improving bone density:
Adequate magnesium supplementation helps prevent bone degradation and improves bone density. However, both insufficient and excessive magnesium intake can have detrimental effects on bone health.
Supplementing with 360 milligrams of magnesium daily helps alleviate cramps caused by magnesium deficiency, but it does not have a significant effect on cramps caused by calcium or potassium deficiency.
Observational studies have shown that populations with the highest magnesium intake have a 36% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those with the lowest intake.
4.Assisting in mood regulation:
Magnesium also assists in the synthesis of hormones related to mood regulation, making it beneficial for combating anxiety and depressive symptoms. Studies have shown a negative correlation between magnesium intake and anxiety or depression.